U.S. Weekly Articles
The period after the end of World War II was a time when European countries had to rebuild damaged economies. Nonetheless, the Swedish economy was soaring as the country’s authorities continued to trade with both sides for most of the war. A stable economic policy was followed since the early years of the twentieth century despite two world wars.
Possibly by sending its gas through Ukraine, Russia could refrain from offering more generous support to pro-Kremlin rebel fighters while the Russian-German Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline could come as a threat to both energy and national security of many European states.
With Xi Jingping and Vladimir Putin as constantly growing competitors, will Biden uphold the delicate balance between continuing the legacy of Donald Trump’s foreign policy and keeping a firm stand against the expansion of Russian and Chinese spheres of interest?
August 30, 2021, when the last US Air Force aircraft took off from Kabul airport, marked the end of the nearly two-decade-long US intervention in Afghanistan.
Due to the intense activity of cyber criminals, authorities in many countries have long been looking for legal and technological solutions to effectively combat computer crime. The successful prosecution of cyber criminals faces numerous difficulties that have to be overcome in order to find and punish the perpetrators.
In mid-1931 the Polish Cipher Bureau was formed by the merger of two units dealing with counterintelligence and cryptology – the Radio-Intelligence Office (Referat Radiowywiadu) and the Polish-Cryptography Office (Referat Szyfrów Własnych). The Bureau dealt with both cryptography, i.e. the production and supervision over the correct use of ciphers, as well as cryptology – studying of ciphers and codes, mainly for the purpose of breaking them. From the very beginning, the Bureau’s staff worked in four units: (1) own ciphers, (2) eastern radio intelligence, (3) Russian ciphers, and (4) dealing with German radio intelligence and ciphers.
The case of Pegasus, an Israeli software that allows various intelligence services in its possession worldwide to infect and take control over almost any device, returned again in mid-July 2021. According to the latest reports, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have used it extremely often, both to monitor their own citizens (particularly those critical of their own governments) as well as politicians of other countries, especially from Egypt and Iraq.
After Donald Trump ordered to build his famous wall, illegal traffic dropped by roughly 90 percent between 2019 and 2020 in Yuma, Arizona. It is not an isolated example of ad-hoc measures to counter modern border threats to state security. A slew of EU and NATO countries, including Lithuania, Estonia, and Hungary, followed suit.
The European Commission has underlined several times how strategic autonomy should encompass a variety of sectors, ranging from economy to security. With the election of Joe Biden in the United States the pillar of security and defense, fundamental to European strategic autonomy has received growing attention.
The technology advancements of the last decade have transformed the competition between the US and China into a dispute concerning the control over global Internet infrastructure. As the geopolitics surrounding the 5G rollout intensify, technologically developing Eastern Europe has become a centre of the conflict. The Sino-American struggle over 5G networks in the region places Eastern European countries in a difficult position both in terms of geopolitical loyalties and technological and economic development.
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision-making systems and conventional solutions of the military is no longer surprising. What is eye-opening, however, is the possibility of using it without human supervision. When Deep Blue computer won a chess game against world champion Garry Kasparov in New York City in 1997, most experts perceived this event as a sign that AI is catching up with human intelligence.
The year 2021 marks the 35th anniversary of the disaster in the nuclear power plant (NPP) of Chernobyl. It is often described as the worst nuclear accident known to humanity, with its fatality rates reaching the five-digit numbers. Despite being badly affected by the accident, Russia is now notorious for dominating the nuclear energy market in Eastern Europe. Three and a half decades after the fallout seems an opportune time to critically reflect on the current state of the nuclear energy landscape in Eastern Europe and Russia’s central role within it.
The 78th anniversary of the arrest of General Stefan Grot-Rowecki was commemorated in Poland on June 30, 2021. The history of this soldier, a warrior for freedom and independence of Poland, was inextricably linked with the fight against the enemies of the Fatherland during World War II.
Joe Biden’s first decision after moving into the White House was reversing president Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. This might have signalled a new break in the importance of climate policy—but did it really? In order to convince the world to trust his newfound focus on climate policy, President Biden will have to act on his promises with bold decision in the near future.