As a result of its aggressive policies, especially after the escalation of operations since 2014, Russia has become the subject of renewed interest in today’s global public opinion among politicians, entrepreneurs, academics, journalists and pundits. This makes access to expert knowledge about the situation in that country all the more important, the direction of Russian politics and economic and military expansion, and finally forecasts of the consequences for Europe and the world.
Since 2014, Russian authorities have been increasing their fight against democratic and pro-Western activities of Ukraine and, in order to achieve so, they have been using various techniques and methods. Among the non-military measures one can distinguish disinformation and propaganda as the key ones. They are addressed both to Ukrainian and Russian societies, but also to the international community. Understanding the characteristics and methods of disinformation and propaganda is crucial to protecting against their destructive influence.
In recent years, organised disinformation has had a growing impact on today’s states and societies. Due to the ease of publishing any content in the Internet as well as universal access to the web, fake news may influence the attitudes and actions both of citizens and of decisionmakers. Disinformation is frequently targeted at traditional media and state institutions. Largescale disinformation may be a tool of aggressive policy of some countries, and it may even become an element of the hybrid war.