THE WARSAW INSTITUTE REVIEW / ISSUES / no. 4/2019
The Polish Underground State, also known as the Polish Secret State, had been built in complete secrecy during the joint occupation of Poland by Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany.
The magnificent Iowa-Illinois Memorial Bridge is not just another historic structure. This construction, also known as the I-74 Bridge, is the oldest existing suspension bridge over the Mississippi River.
A New Opportunty in Poland’s Energy Policy and Energy Security after the 2019 Parliamentary Elections
The most recent parliamentary election campaigns, which took place in 2019, did not bring new elements into Poland’s energy policy. Debates and discussion were largely unimpressive and none of the political blocs put forward ideas that could presented newly added value.
Natural gas trade is possibly the most promising area for cooperation within the entire Three Seas Initiative. The infrastructure currently under construction will be an important factor in the further integration of the entire region.
It is impossible to discuss the situation in the Middle East –– from social, economic, military, or, broadly speaking, geopolitical perspectives –– without taking into account the war with ISIL.
Turkey’s invasion of North and East Syria has exposed the powerlessness of European countries, which, in spite of establishing a common position, have been unable to take any effective action. It will also have a far-reaching impact on increasing terrorist threat, new humanitarian crisis, and change in the geopolitical balance. Turkey’s dependence on Russia will also increase, and war crimes committed in Syria will affect NATO’s image.
It might not feel like it from the headlines, but Afghanistan is ready for peace. The circumstances and timing will never be absolutely perfect.
The US has been a traditional ally of Norway for 70 years as well as its main guarantor of security. Despite the fact that both countries share a strong bond at the strategic level, there are some incongruencies between them on the level of values and their visions for international cooperation.
In 1991, Poland saw its first fully free elections – since the end of World War II – to the Sejm and the Senate, the lower and upper houses of the Polish parliament. It is no exaggeration to say that for Poland, the first country to oppose the joint aggression by Germany and Soviet Russia that began that war, this was a pivotal moment.
The demographic outlook for Eastern Europe has a bittersweet taste. The region may suffer considerably from low fertility rates, but it may manage to get around the biggest changes associated with migration.
In the public domain, Czechs are considered one of the more pro-Russian nations in Europe. Upon closer inspection, however, this portrait is not so black and white.
This autumn’s parliamentary election in Poland was, above all, a success of democracy. Evidence of this success can be seen in the mobilization of the electorate, the high turnout, as well as the fact that voters feel that government decision-makers listen to them and that their vote can influence the course of national events.
On September 22, 2018, the FTSE Russell and STOXX index agencies reclassified the Polish capital market to Developed Market Status – a capital market ‘Champions League’.