Date: 22 December 2023 Author: prof. Tomasz Grzegorz Grosse

Ukraine Heads Into the Second Year of the Defensive War

Russian advances stalled in Ukraine despite some gains in the early days of the invasion that had taken Ukrainian forces by surprise on February 24, 2022. In various locations, Ukrainian forces have effectively launched counteroffensives, resulting in the recapture of portions of the previously occupied territory. In 2023, Ukraine’s armed forces made another effort to retaliate and retake Russianoccupied land. Regrettably, despite tactical successes, the Ukrainian military failed to achieve a breakthrough in breaking through Russian defense fortifications. Numerous voices, including some within the Ukrainian military, suggest that attaining complete success might prove challenging, and it is evident that the Russians have yet to have the final say.

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